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This, that, these, those.

This, that, these and those are demonstrative pronouns.
  • This is my bag.
  • This is my sister.
We use this to specify an object or person in the singular that is near to us.
  • This bag is heavy.
  • This computer is expensive.
We use this+noun to specify an object or person in the singular that is near to us.
  • These are my children.
We use these to specify an object or people in the plural that is near to us.
  • These flowers are for my wife.
  • These shoes are uncomfortable.
We use these+noun to specify  objects or people in the plural that  are near to us.
  • That is an amazing view.
We use that to specify an object or person in the singular that is far from us.
  • That aeroplane is very high.
  • That boat is beautiful.
We use that +noun to specify an object or person in the singular that is far from us.
  • Those are my shoes.
We use those to specify objects or people in the plural that are far from us.
  • Those aeroplanes are very fast.
  • Those birds are beautiful.
We use those +noun to specify objects or people in the plural that  are far from us.
 
Present tense
  • This pizza is delicious.
Past tense
  • That pizza was delicious last night.
If an action is in the present or near future,then we use this or these. If an action is in the past,then we use that or those.
  • Security these people are stealing from my shop.
  • These dogs are making too much noise.
  • Did you see those people in the street last night?
  • Those were not my car keys.
 
We use this for introduction for meeting or phone.
  • Mark, this is David.
  • Hello David this is Mark.
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