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All and Every

All
 
Some students often get confused when they use all or every.
 
When to use all
  • All of the buffalos are brown.
We use all in the sentence above becaus:e
  • All the buffalos are brown.
We could also say:
  • Every buffalo is brown.
So both of these sentences are correct and they mean the same.
 
The rules of all and every
 
All + plural
 
If the next word in the sentence is plural then the noun must go into the plural and the verb is plural also.
  • All the buffalos are brown.
Every + singular
 
If the next word in the sentence is in the singular form of a noun then the verb is singular as too.
  • Every buffalo is brown.
Examples
  • All of the cakes are chocolate cakes.
  • Every cake is a chocolate cake.
  • All of the children are happy.
  • Every child is happy.
  • All of the cars are new.
  • Every car is new.
  • All of the trains arrive five minutes early.
  • Every train arrives five minutes early.
Like most things in English there are a couple of exceptions. Sometime we can only use the word all if we want to use possessive pronoun.
 
What is a possessive pronoun?
 
A possessive pronoun is words like my, your, his, her, its, their and our.
 
Possessive pronouns are used to indicate that somebody owns something. So if we want to use a possessive pronoun in our sentence then we must only use the word all and we can not use the word every.
  • All of his friends are Spanish.
  • Every person he knows is Spanish.
  • All of her cakes taste funny.
  • Every cake tastes funny.
  • All of our food was spoilt in the flood.
  • Every bit of food was spoilt in the flood.
  • Every table is brown.
  • All of their tables are brown
All + demonstratives
 
When we to use something demonstrative pronoun again we can only use the word all.
 
What is a demonstrative pronoun?
 
A demonstrative pronoun is words like this, that, these and those.
  • All of these people are learning English.
  • All those people do not like me.
  • All of these children have lost their parents in the war.
  • All of that paper is going to be burned.
  • All of this paint is the wrong color.  
  • All of those eggs have double yolks.
  • Every one of those eggs has a double yolk.
All + uncountable nouns
 
As you know uncountable nouns are for the things that we cannot count like milk, water, music and money.
  • All of the money is in American dollars.
  • All water goes to the sea.
  • All of the music has taken years to develop.
You can not say
  • Every money is in American dollars.
  • Every water goes to the sea.
  • Every music has taken years to develop.
But you can say
  • Every dollar is American.
  • Every drop of water goes to the sea.
  • Every type of music has taken years to develop.
The whole of something
 
When we use all we are talking about the whole of something and not just part of something.
  • My friends ate all of the cake.
  • My friends ate the whole of the cake.
If we are talking about the slice of the cake, we can say
  • My friends ate all the slices of the cake.
  • My friends ate every slice of the cake.
All of the time
 
It is very common to use all when we are talking about time or duration of regular events.
  • Yesterday I worked all day.
It means I started work early in the morning and I finish working at night. All day is the duration.
  • Last week, I worked every day.
Every is referring to a regular event which has been repeated over time. We use all for the whole of the duration.
  • All week, all month, all morning and all year.
And every for each of the durations.
  • Every week, every month, every morning, every year.
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