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If I knew ... I wish I knew...

  • If I knew his number, I would phone him.
  • Sue says: If I knew his number.... This tells us that she doesn't know his number.
  • She is imagining the situation. The real situation is that she doesn't know his number.
 
When you imagine a situation like this, you use if + past (if I knew/if you were/if we didn't etc.). But the meaning is present, not past:
  • Tom would read more if he had more time. (but he doesn't have much time)
  • If I didn't want to go to the party, I wouldn't go. (but I want to go)
  • We wouldn't have any money if we didn't work. (but we work)
  • If you were in my position, what would you do?
  • It's a pity you can't drive. It would be useful if you could.
We use the past in the same way after wish.

I wish I knew / I wish you were etc.

We use wish to say that we regret something, that something is not as we would like it to be:
  • I wish I knew Paul's phone number.
  • Do you ever wish you could fly?
  • It rains a lot here. I wish it didn't rain so often.
  • It's very crowded here. I wish there weren't so many people.
  • I wish I didn't have to work. 
After if and wish, you can use were instead of was (if I were I wish it were etc.). So you can say:
  • If I were you, I wouldn't buy that coat, or If I was you...
  • I'd go out if it weren't raining, or if it wasn't raining.
  • I wish it were possible, or I wish it was possible.
We do not normally use would in the if-part of the sentence or after wish:
  • If I were rich, I would have a yacht. (not 'If I would be rich')
  • I wish I had something to read. (not 'I wish I would have')
Sometimes wish ... would is possible ('I wish you would listen')
 
Note that could sometimes means 'would be able to' and sometimes 'was/were able to':
  • You could get a job more easily. (you could get or you would be able to get)
  • If you could speak a foreign language. (you could speak or you were able to speak)
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