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Countable nouns

A countable noun is a separate object, people, a person or maybe a concept. But the important thing is they are separate.  and we can count countable nouns they are separate objects.
  • Dog, chair, apple, one banana, two bananas, house, plate, sandwich, television etc.
They are very easy to identify because they are all separate and individual objects. Countable nouns have both a singular and a plural form, so they can exist in the singular and plural.
  • The apple is very nice.
Since the noun is singular then the verb must be singular as well.
 
This is the third person singular of the verb to be, therefore countable nouns can also have a plural.
  • The apples are very nice.
We add an s to make the plural and the verb to be is in the third person plural.
  • He is buying two houses.
We can use the article a or an in the singular
  • I have an apple.
The apple is a singular and so we can use the word an, we say an with an because the noun starts with a vowel.
  • I have a sandwich.
Here we just use a because the noun does not start with a vowel we use the word some only in the plural:
  • Can I have some chairs?
  • Can I have a chair?

Uncountable nouns

Uncountable nouns are a bit more difficult to identify. The definition is that uncountable nouns are names of materials, liquids, concepts, collections or mass objects without boundaries.
 
We cannot count uncountable nouns they are not separate objects.
  • Sugar, butter, rice, salt, pasta, bread, milk, water.
Uncountable nouns only have a singular form. When they are uncountable we only use the singular verb.
  • The pasta is very nice.

We can not say.. 

  • The pasta are very nice.
  • The pastas are very nice .
We can not use the article a or an :
  • Can I have a pasta?
  • He served me a pasta.

We must say..

  • Can I have some pasta?
  • He served me some pasta.
Take these examples.
  • He gave me some good advice.
  • He gave me some good advices.
  • Can I have some information.
  • Can I have an information?
  • The news is good.
  • The news are good.
News is always singular in English even though there is an s at the end, it is singular, it is important to understand that there are some nouns which are in both categories, countable and uncountable.
 
Take the word chocolate.
 
In some situations, if we are talking about chocolates.
 
A box of small individual chocolates.
  • There are lots of separate chocolates.
  • Do you want a chocolate?
A bar of chocolate is a mass of chocolate.
  • Would you like some chocolate?
When you learn new nouns, it is important to decide and to learn if the noun is countable or uncountable or both.
 
Sometimes we use an uncountable noun like a countable noun.
  • Do you want some water?
  • Do you want a water?
  • Do you want a glass of water ?
We can transform the sentence into a countable sentence if we add a word which describes the volume or a measure or a container or a quantity.
  • Bowl of rice.
  • Slice of bread.
  • Piece of cheese.
  • Lump of sugar.
  • Pinch of salt.

Some nouns that are uncountable.

Advice, air, alcohol, art, beef, blood, butter, cheese, coffee, confusion, cotton, education, electricity, entertainment, experience, fiction, flour, food, forgiveness, fresh air, furniture, gold, grass, ground, happiness, homework, honey, ice, information, knowledge, lightning, literature, love, luck, luggage, meat, milk, mist, money, music, news, noise, oxygen, patience, pay, peace, peanut butter, pepper, petrol, plastic, pork, power, pressure, rain, research, rice, sadness, salt, sand, shopping ,silver, snow, space ,speed, steam, sugar, sunshine, tea, tennis, thunder, toothpaste, traffic, trousers, vinegar, water, weather, wine, wood, wool, work.
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